Florian Winkelbauer


Antifragility (Nassim Nicholas Taleb)

An antifragile system benefits from disorder

Nonlinear events


Traffic is a function, which depends on the amount of cars. This function is nonlinear (concave), as the following two situations create different outputs:

Important: Don’t confuse x with f(x).

In general:

Meltdown (Chris Clearfield, András Tilcsik)

Why our systems fail and what we can do about it

Complexity and coupling increase the chance of big errors. In these systems, small problems and minor issues can accumulate into an unforeseen meltdown.

In the past, nuclear power plants were one of only a few systems which were both complex and highly coupled. Over the last years more and more systems entered this domain.

How to deal with these systems:



Diverse groups are “better” because group members are more skeptical which in turn makes it more likely to catch small errors.

Cynefin Framework